S. Hooker, Ph.D., P.E.
a comparison of lymphoblast cells from children with autism and matched
non-autistic controls, a significantly higher number of “autistic”
cell lines showed a reduction in ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiratory
capacity and reserve capacity when exposed to mercury as compared to control
cell lines. This supports the notion that a subset of individuals with autism
may be vulnerable to mitochondrial dysfunction via thimerosal exposure.
- Geier et al. 2015
Clin Chim Acta “Thimerosal: Clinical, Epidemiologic and Biochemical
review article includes a section on numerous papers linking thimerosal
exposure via infant vaccines to autism. This also includes a critique of
studies from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control that deny any type of
- Yassa 2014 Environ
Toxicol Pharmacol “Autism: A Form of Mercury and Lead Toxicity,”
levels of mercury and lead were much higher in autistic children as compared
to normal controls. Upon chelation, the blood levels of these heavy metals
decreased and autistic symptoms improved.
- Hooker et al. 2014
BioMed Research International, “Methodological Issues and Evidence
of Malfeasance In Research Purporting to Show that Thimerosal-Containing
Vaccines are Safe” http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/247218.
review article shows methodological flaws in six separate CDC studies claiming
that thimerosal does not cause autism. In three specific instances (Madsen
et al. 2003, Verstraeten et al. 2003 and Price et al. 2010) evidence of
malfeasance on the part of CDC scientists is shown. Background data (not
reported in print) from these three publications suggest a strong link between
thimerosal exposure and autism.
- Geier et al. 2014
J Biochem Pharmacol Res “The risk of neurodevelopmental disorders
following a Thimerosal-preserved DTaP formulation in comparison to its
Thimerosal-reduced formulation in the vaccine adverse event reporting
system (VAERS)” 2:64.
of autism reports from thimerosal-containing versus thimerosal free DTaP
formulations showed a relative risk of 7.67 for autism when children were
exposed to thimerosal via the DTaP vaccine.
- Koh et al. 2014
Mol Brain, “Abnormalities in the zinc-metalloprotease-BDNF axis
may contribute to megalencephaly and cortical hyperconnectivity in young
autism spectrum disorder patients” PMID
protein (zinc-metalloprotease-BDNF) is upregulated by the presence of organic
mercurials including thimerosal and it is responsible for large brains (megalencephaly)
and corticol hyperconnectivity in children with autism.
- Geier et al. 2013
Translational Neurodegeneration, “A two-phase study evaluating
the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration
and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United
States” PMID 24354891.
study included a comparison of VAERS (Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System)
reports of autism following DTaP (Thimerosal containing and Thimerosal free).
In addition the link between thimerosal containing HepB vaccine administration
and autism was elucidated with a dose-dependent effect, using the CDC’s
Vaccine Safety Datalink.
- Gorrindo et al.
2013 PLOS One “Enrichment of Elevated Plasma F2t-Isoprostane Levels
in Individuals with Autism Who Are Stratified by Presence of Gastrointestinal
Dysfunction” DOI: 10.1371.
paper showed significant levels of oxidative stress in children with autism
with comorbid gastrointestinal problems. Thimerosal as well as vaccines
in general contributes markedly to the amount of oxidative stress sustained
- Gronborg et al.
2013 JAMA Pediatrics, “Recurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorders
in Full and Half-Siblings and Trends over Time A Population-Based Cohort
publication shows that ASD prevalence rates in Denmark decreased by 30%
of the time period from 1994 to 2004 after Denmark removed thimerosal from
their vaccines in 1992. This is directly counter to the fraudulent CDC Madsen
et al. 2003 publication.
- Sharpe et al. 2013
J Toxicol “B-lymphocytes from a population of children with autism
spectrum disorder and their unaffected siblings exhibit hypersensitivity
to thimerosal” PMID 23843785.
paper shows that peripheral blood lymphocytes specific to antibody based
immunity, from autistic subjects and their unaffected siblings, were much
more sensitivity and exhibited higher rates of cell death than those of
unaffected, unrelated control children. Thimerosal levels required to kill
the cells from the subjects were less than 40% of those required to kill
the cells of unrelated, non-autistic controls.
et al. 2012 Neurochem Res “Administration of thimerosal to infant
rats increases overflow of glutamate and aspartate in the prefrontal
cortex: protective role of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate” PMID
study authors determined that since excessive accumulation of extracellular
glutamate is linked with excitotoxicity, data implies that neonatal exposure
to thimerosal-containing vaccines might induce excitotoxic brain injuries,
leading to neurodevelopmental disorders.
et al. 2012 J Toxicol “Thimerosal-Derived Ethylmercury Is a Mitochondrial
Toxin in Human Astrocytes: Possible Role of Fenton Chemistry in the Oxidation
and Breakage of mtDNA” PMID 22811707.
significantly damaged the mitochondrial membranes and DNA in human astrocytes
(which are also implicated in autism spectrum disorder). The enzyme caspase-3,
which signals cell death was upregulated by 5 times in the presence of thimerosal
and mitochondrial membranes showed significant depolarization.
et al. 2012 Cerebellum “Maternal thimerosal exposure results in
aberrant cerebellar oxidative stress, thyroid hormone metabolism, and
motor behavior in rat pups; sex- and strain-dependent effects” PMID
pups were exposed to thimerosal levels in utero (similar to the maternal
flu shot) and exhibited aberrant brain oxidative stress (in the cerebellum)
as well as autistic like behaviors. These effects were reserved primarily
to males in the “Spontaneously Hypersensitive Rat” strain.
et al. 2011 Toxicol Environ Chem “Toxicity biomarkers among US children
compared to a similar cohort in France: a blinded study measuring urinary
porphyrins” PMID 24482554
age and gender matched cohort study of 28 autism cases and 28 controls showed
significantly higher urinary porphyrin levels in children with autism, specifically
in those porphyrins (hexacarboxyporphyrin and precoproporphyrin) associated
with mercury toxicity.
et al. 2010 J Toxicol Env Health A “Hepatitis B vaccination of male
neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002” PMID 21058170.
study authors investigated the National Health Inventory Survey (a very
large national database) and found that boys receiving the full HepB series
were 3 times as likely to receive an autism diagnosis as compared to those
not receiving any HepB vaccine (statistically significant). Non-white boys
had a significantly worse outcome.
et al. 2010 Cell Biol Toxicol “Induction of metallothionein in mouse
cerebellum and cerebrum with low-dose thimerosal injection” PMID
study authors determined that in combination with the brain pathology observed
in patients diagnosed with autism, the present study helps to support the
possible biological plausibility for how low-dose exposure to mercury from
thimerosal-containing vaccines may be associated with autism.
et al. 2009 J Neurol Sci “Biomarkers of environmental toxicity and
susceptibility in autism PMID 18817931.
toxicity was assessed in a cohort of 28 children with autism. The cohort
showed significantly higher levels of urinary porphyrins associated with
mercury toxicity as well as decreased plasma levels of reduced glutathione,
cysteine and sulfate, also indicating active mercury toxicity and an inability
to detoxify heavy metals.
et al. 2008 J Neurol Sci “Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental
disorders: an assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine
Safety Datalink” PMID 18482737.
study authors determined that significantly increased risk ratios were observed
for autism and autism spectrum disorders as a result of exposure to mercury
from Thimerosal-containing vaccines using the CDC’s Vaccine Safety
et al. 2008 Neuro Endocrinol Lett “Neurodevelopmental disorders,
maternal Rh-negativity, and Rho(D) immune globulins: a multi-center assessment”
receiving thimerosal via Rho(D) immune globulin injection saw a significantly
higher rate of autism in the children exposed to mercury in utero. Overall,
twice as much autism was seen in the exposed group of children versus the
non-exposed control group.
et al. 2007 J Tox Environ Health A “Mercury, lead, and zinc in baby
teeth of children with autism versus controls” PMID 17497416
with autism showed significantly higher levels of mercury in their baby
teeth than non-autistic controls, indicated marked exposure to mercury during
gestation and early infancy.
et al. 2007 J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med “A prospective study of
thimerosal-containing Rho(D)-immune globulin administration as a risk
factor for autistic disorders” PMID
with autism were twice as likely as non-autistic controls to be born from
mothers who had Rh incompatibilities with the developing fetus during pregnancy
and thus were exposed to thimerosal via Rho(D) immune globulin injections
et al. 2007 J Toxicol Env Health A “A case series of children with
apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms
of regressive autistic disorders” PMID 17454560.
case series of eight autistic patients showed a history of excretion of
significant amounts of mercury post chelation challenge, biochemical evidence
of decreased function in their glutathione pathways and had no known significant
mercury exposure except from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho(D)-immune
globulin preparations; and had alternate causes for their regressive ASDs
et al. 2007 J Child Neurol “Blood Levels of Mercury Are Related
to Diagnosis of Autism: A Reanalysis of an Important Data Set” 22:1308.
study is a correction to a previous study that claimed mercury levels in
children’s blood did not correlate with the presence of autism. In
this reanalysis, Desoto shows clearly that a statistically significant link
appears between blood mercury levels and autistic disorder in children.
et al. 2006 J Toxicol Env Health A “An evaluation of the effects
of thimerosal on neurodevelopmental disorders reported following DTP and
Hib vaccines in comparison to DTPH vaccine in the United States”
study shows significantly increased risk ratios for autism, speech disorders,
mental retardation, infantile spasms, and thinking abnormalities reported
to VAERS found following thimerosal-containing DTP vaccines in comparison
to thimerosal-free DTPH vaccines, with minimal bias or systematic error.
et al. 2006 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol “Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic
disorder: implications for environmental toxicity” PMID 16782144
with autism showed statistically elevated levels of urinary porphyrins that
specifically show mercury toxicity due to environmental exposure. This was
a large study of 106 children with autism compared to children with Asperger’s
and control children. Neither the Asperger’s or control group showed
elevations in urinary porphyrin levels.
- Herbert 2005 Neuroscientist
“Large brains in autism: the challenge of pervasive abnormality”
author of this study links large brain size with neuroinflammation associated
with toxic heavy metal exposure. The author posits that this type of inflammation
could be treatable and increase the success of medical interventions for
et al. 2005 Environ Health Perspect “Comparison of blood and brain
mercury levels in infant monkeys exposed to methylmercury or vaccines
containing thimerosal” PMID 16079072.
macaques retained significantly higher levels of elemental mercury in their
brain tissue when exposed to thimerosal in infant vaccines versus methylmercury.
The half-life of the mercury associated with thimerosal exposure was indefinite
as it lasted much longer than the overall testing period.
et al. 2005 Int J Mol Med “Thimerosal induces neuronal cell apoptosis
by causing cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor release from mitochondria”
at levels comparable to infant exposure via vaccines caused neuronal cell
death through changing the mitochondrial microenvironment. Thimerosal induced
cell death was associated with mitochondrial depolarization
and a significant level of reactive oxidative stress intracellularly.
et al. 2005 Neurotoxicol “Thimerosal neurotoxicity is associated
with glutathione depletion: protection with glutathione precursors”
study investigated the cellular response to thimerosal toxicity including
a very profound decrease in intracellular glutathione levels. Earlier research
by this same author showed that autistic children had significantly lower
glutathione levels as compared to neurotypical control children.
et al. 2004 Am J Clinical Nutrition “Metabolic biomarkers of increased
oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism”
with autism have a diminished methylation capacity leading to higher sustained
levels of oxidation stress, due to deficiencies primarily in glutathione.
Vaccines produce a very high level of oxidation stress to the body upon
et al. 2004 Mol Psychiatr “Activation of methionine synthase by
insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental
toxins and thimerosal” PMID 14745455.
study shows that a novel growth factor signalling pathway regulates methionine
synthase(MS) activity and thereby modulates methylation reactions. The potent
inhibition of this pathway by ethanol, lead, mercury, aluminum and thimerosal
suggests that it may be an important target of neurodevelopmental toxins.
et al. 2004 Mol Psychiatr “Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal
are mouse strain dependent” PMID 15184908.
mouse strains showing autoimmune disease sensitivity exhibited autistic
behaviors and autistic-like brain pathologies after being exposed to thimerosal.
Normal strains of mice did not exhibit these behaviors or neurological features.
et al. 2003 Pediatrics “Prenatal, perinatal and neonatal factors
in autism, pervasive development disorder-not otherwise specified, and
the general population” PMID
paper shows that mothers of children with autism had a statistically significant
greater level of Rh-factor disease than mothers in the general population.
Rh-factor disease is an indicator of thimerosal exposure as, at the time,
all available anti-Rho IgG (therapeutic drug for Rh-factor disease) doses
given to these mothers contained at least 12.5 micrograms of mercury via
et al. 2003 Int J Toxicol “Reduced levels of mercury in first baby
haircuts of autistic children” PMID 12933322.
study shows that autistic children are poor secreters ofmercury via hair,
which a normal physiological mode of mercury detoxification. Thus, autistic
children subjected to mercury exposure would likely experience a longer,
sustained toxicological effect.
et al. 2002 Mol Psychiatr “The neuropathogenesis of mercury toxicity”
study elucidates “little” difference between methylmercury and
ethylmercury (breakdown product of Thimerosal) toxicity to cells counter
to CDC sponsored studies that declared that ethylmercury was “safe
et al. 2002 Genes Immun “Biochemical and molecular basis of thimerosal-induced
apoptosis in T cells: a major role of mitochondrial pathway” PMID
study shows that thimerosal causes cell death in T lymphocytes (immune cells)
via a mitochondrial depolarization mechanism.
et al. 2002 Mol Psychiatr “The Role of Mercury in the Pathogenesis
of Autism” PMID 12142947.
paper links thimerosal exposure via infant vaccines to autism based on the
pathologies associated with autism as well as the timing of autistic regression.
Emphasis is made on the total mercury exposure to infants in the vaccination
schedule used in the 1990’s and early 2000’s.
et al. 2001 Med Hypotheses “Autism: A Novel Form of Mercury Poisioning”
are made between the signs and symptoms of mercury poisoning and infantile
autism. A comprehensive analysis is included on the comordities of autism
and their corresponding analogs due to mercury exposure.
et al. 1999 Internal CDC Abstract for the Epidemic Intelligence Service
Meeting of 2000 “Increased risk of developmental neurologic impairment
after high exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccine in first month of
original version of the Verstraeten et al. paper (that was ultimately “watered
down” before it was published in final form in 2003) shows risks of
autism at 7.6-fold for children exposed to thimerosal in the first month
of life compared to unexposed controls.